Services towards a Digital Nation

NIC is closely associated with the government in different aspects of governance by establishing a nationwide state-of-the-art ICT infrastructure and services for Central Government, State Governments, UT Administrations, Districts and other Government bodies. It offers a wide range of services which includes multi gigabit nationwide networks NICNET, NKN, National Data Centres, National Cloud, pan India VC infrastructure, Command and Control Centre, multi-layered GIS based platform, Domain Registration and Webcast. This plays a significant role in delivering citizen centric e-services.

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    National Informatics Centre (NIC) through its Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Network – NICNET, has institutional linkages across all the Ministries /Departments of the Central Government, State Governments, Union Territories, and District administrations of the country.
    NICNET is a satellite-based nation-wide computer-communication network, that is a type of Wide Area Network (WAN).

    Through NICNET, NIC has been instrumental in steering e-Governance applications in Government Ministries/ Departments at the Centre, States, Districts and Block level, facilitating improvement in Government services, wider transparency, promoting decentralized planning and management, resulting in better efficiency and accountability to the people of India.

    Direct peering of NICNET with BSNL, PGCIL and Railtel are completed at Delhi and Hyderabad for saving Internet Bandwidth and faster access of each other’s Network and Data Centre. Peering with Google, Microsoft and Akamai Content Delivery Network has facilitated faster access to Google services and other important International web sites.

    Re-structuring of Videoconferencing network has enabled to minimize delay and handle large scale important video conferencing such as PRAGATI of Hon’ble Prime Minister, GST Council Meetings by Hon’ble Finance Minister among others.

Data Centre

Core of e-Governance Infrastructure in India

Data Centre

With the increased expectations from citizens for online services and the number of e-Governance Projects being launched by the Government, the Data Centre requirements are growing exponentially. There is a continuous need to set up strategic infrastructure that facilitates high availability, quick scalability, efficient management & optimized utilization of resources.

To address this ever-growing demand, National Informatics Centre (NIC) has set up state-of-the-art National Data Centres at NIC Headquarters Delhi, Pune, Hyderabad and Bhubaneswar and 37 small Data Centres at various State Capitals to provide services to the Government at all levels. These Data Centres combine round-the-clock operations and management of systems with onsite skilled personnel. The National Data Centres form the core of e-Governance Infrastructure in India by providing services to various e-Governance initiatives undertaken by the Government of India.

The first Data Centre was launched in Hyderabad in 2008, followed by NDC Pune in 2010, NDC Delhi in 2011 and NDC Bhubaneshwar in 2018.

National Data Centre (NDC) at Bhubaneswar is a Cloud-enabled Data Centre which has been offering cloud services to Government Departments since its inception. This NDC was setup with a state-of-the-art facility with 24X7 support, covering 40,000 square feet of area to meet the growing needs of Digital India initiatives.

National Data Centres at Delhi, Pune and Hyderabad were upgraded with high speed Network, 1.6 Petabyte Enterprise class storage, high throughput Network Load Balancers, and Intrusion Prevention Systems. Solution for Backup as a Service & Storage as a Service was also implemented. The ICT infrastructure of number of National Level Projects was hosted/ enhanced; which includes e-Office, e-Courts and e-Transport.

The foundation stone of first National Data Centre for the North Eastern Region (NEDC) was laid by Hon’ble Prime Minister at Guwahati, Assam through video conferencing in February 2021. It will have state-of-the-art network and Security Operating Centres, and the advanced facility to catalyze the digital empowerment of the region. The Network Operating Centre will monitor and manage the critical ICT infrastructure, ensuring 24×7 availability of services.



National Cloud

Accelerating delivery of e-services by optimising utilization of infrastructure

National Cloud

Meghraj – the Cloud Computing initiative of the Government of India, focuses to accelerate delivery of e-services in the country while optimizing ICT spending of the Government. It ensures optimum utilization of the infrastructure and speed up the development and deployment of eGov applications.

NIC Cloud Services offers variety of service models such as:


  • Platform as a Service – PaaS provides pre-installed web and database servers so that you can publish and run web application without worrying about server setup.
  • Infrastructure as a Service – IaaS provides you basic virtual compute infrastructure resources like CPU, Memory, Disk Storage attached to blank VMs with allowing you to install OS, using ISOs, from scratch and customization.
  • Software as a Services – This provides on demand software service. SaaS is a software delivery model where users are not responsible for supporting the application or any of the components. The server infrastructure, OS and software is being managed by cloud services.
  • Storage as a Service – This provides you on demand storage of various types including file storage and block storage etc. File and Block storage are methods to store data on NAS and SAN storage systems. Each storage volume can be treated as an independent disk drive and it can be controlled by external server operating system.
  • Load Balancer as a Service – Load balancing Service allows you to efficiently get incoming network traffic requests distributed across a group of back-end servers (e.g. server farm / server pool). This service is available on demand for critical application requiring high availability and easy workload manageability.
  • Resource Monitoring as a Service – This service helps you to monitor the cloud resources utilization and its availability with allowing you to analyse the utilization trends for critical server resources like CPU, Memory, Network I/O etc. This helps you for better capacity planning and provide a better end-user experience.
  • Vulnerability Assessment Service – This service helps you to assess your Servers and networks for identifying the security vulnerabilities i.e. threats and risks they pose. A vulnerability assessment process detects and classifies system weaknesses in Servers, networks and communications equipment and predicts the effectiveness of countermeasures.
  • Backup Service – Allows you to backup the data and application code lying inside the Cloud Servers based on various parameters like frequency, retention period etc.
  • Application Performance Management (APM) Service – Application Performance Management (APM) provides the monitoring and management of performance, availability and user experience of software applications. APM strives to detect and diagnose complex application performance problems to maintain an expected level of service.
  • Data Analytics (DA) as a Service – Data Analytics as a service (DA-SaaS) refers to the provision of analytics software and operations through web-delivered technologies. These types of solutions offer businesses an alternative to developing internal hardware setups just to perform business analytics.
  • e-Granthalaya as a Service – e-Granthalaya is a Library Management Software. e-Granthalaya is useful for automation of in-house activities of libraries and to provide various online member services. The software provides built-in Web OPAC interface to publish the library catalog over Internet. The software is UNICODE Compliant thus, supports data entry in local languages.
  • Agile as a Service – Agile development is combination of frameworks, tools and software practices adopted by self-organizing teams for delivering fast paced user centric software solutions. Practices and frameworks touch upon all the aspects of software development from planning (Scrum) to deployment and monitoring (DevOps).
  • Load Testing as a Service – Load Testing helps in validating the application design and server infrastructure for expected concurrent user load wherein the system’s response is tested under varying load conditions simulating concurrent virtual users accessing the application under test.
  • Artificial Intelligence as a Service – Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human cognitive processes by machines. For this machine learns from data both structured and unstructured. AI models can be built using supervised learning, or semi-supervised learning, where the system can be used to search for patterns in the data and cluster them, and in next stage use such classes for further model training.However usually users donot have the necessary resources to harness AI because data crunching is a computationally intensive job.
  • Website as a Service – Website as a Service (WaaS) provides you website design, development, hosting, maintenance and updates services through S3WaaS. S3WaaS – Secure, Scalable and Sugamya Website as a Service is aimed at providing GIGW compliant, intuitive, user friendly, high quality, and customizable websites to Government entities. SaaS model has been developed to Create, Deploy, Configure and Manage Accessible websites without much of effort and technical knowhow. The S3WaaS framework has been deployed on the infrastructure provided by the NIC Cloud.
  • Public IP Service – A public IP address is an IP address that can be allocated to any of your application on cloud server to make it accessed over the Internet.
  • Anti-virus Service – Virus protection is an important part of keeping the systems, applications and data in your cloud environment safe from viruses, spyware and other malware threats. Antivirus service is made available to cloud users as Managed Service.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF) Service – Web Application Firewall will help you to give extra protection for HTTP / web based applications with having applied a set of rules to an HTTP conversation and cover common attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection.



Backbone of Government communication in India


Electronic Mail (better known as E-Mail), is the most used Network Service across the country. National Informatics Centre (NIC) provides different kinds of E-mail services to its users, over NICNET, which is NIC’s satellite-based communication network. The different types of e-mail services being provided include SMTP, UUCP and X.400. The NICNET e-mail service is distributed over many mail servers located at different NIC Centres. These are inter-linked with each other in a way that mails can be exchanged amongst all types of services.

E-mail can be used as part of the electronic file processing in Government of India. All services under e-mail are offered free of cost to all officials under Ministries / Departments / Statutory Bodies / Autonomous bodies of both Central and State/ UT Governments.

The E-mail service is also integrated with a X.500 directory which makes it possible to search for and locate e-mail addresses very easily. It is also possible to send fax messages through E-mail since a gateway is provided for conversion of messages for fax recipients.

Mails are accepted and sent in NICNET from a single entry point i.e. via the SMTP gateways. Over 8 lakh mails are transacted in a day. Once a mail is accepted in the network, based on its address, it is routed to the recipient server.

Messaging services constitute one of the primary applications deployed across the network. Each network connected to the Internet has a Domain Name associated with it, to ensure email and other traffic getting directed to the right recipient.

In the case of NICNET, this domain is known as “”. All emails to the home user are directed to “home.user[at]nic[dot]in” which results in the mail being stored on the NIC mail server, ready to be collected by the home user email client. “” domain accounts are also maintained by NIC for use by Government departments.

Under the Digital India initiative, NIC has established a robust Messaging framework that includes core eMial application Gateway services, Short Messaging Service (SMS), OBD (Outbound Dialing) and an IT Platform for citizen engagement (Sampark). These services collectively create a value chain over the existing NIC web portals that host Digital Services and are used extensively by Central & State Governments for citizen engagement & disseminating information.


Remote Sensing & GIS

Location based Electronic Delivery of Services for Planning & Governance

Remote Sensing & GIS

Digital India aims to establish end to end geo-spatial electronics delivery systems as part of Mission Mode Projects in e-Governance domain and envisages ‘National GIS Mission’ as core foundation of location-based Electronic Delivery of Services for Planning & Governance.

Platforms for GIS Service Delivery of NIC

a) Visualization services (
These services are open to Government as well as citizens

(b) Map services (
NIC has developed an automated map service dissemination application consisting of about 32 layers. This platform enables all the NIC officers to access and integrate map services in their e-Gov application. Map services are being provided to various Ministries and Departments like the Ministry of Sanitation and Drinking Water for SBM (Gramin), Drinking Water Portal etc. Similar services are being provided to the Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Urban Development, Department of Land Resources, Department of Labour, Vahan & Sarathi projects, Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS), Health Management Information System (HMIS) etc.

(c) Geocoding and Reverse geocoding services
Geocoding is the process of transforming a description of a location such as a pair of coordinates, an address and name of a place to a location on the earth’s surface. NIC has incorporated three geocoding options on Bharat Maps – NIC Place Locator, Pin code Locator and ESRI World Geocoder.

(d) NIC Satellite Imagery
Satellite imagery is one valid source of latest location information, and therefore, having its base map service is of added advantage for visualization and verifying data. As a part of the “Upscaling of Multi-layer GIS Framework” project, it was required to create in-house and high resolution national image services for upgrading the existing selected GIS layers to 1:10,000 scale and encourage its use in various e-Gov applications instead of the external services like Google, Bing etc.

GIS platform, established by National Informatics Centre (NIC), using NICMAPS services, has been revamped as ‘BHARAT MAPS’. It depicts the core foundation data as an integrated multi-scale, multi-resolution base map service using reference data from various agencies.

NIC’s Multi-Layer GIS Platform, Bharat Maps defines such a multi-scale and multi-resolution service-oriented framework, which is leveraging even API based OGC compliant (WMS, WFS etc.) Map Services to get integrated with e-Governance workflows associated with flagship programmes of the Government such as Swachh Bharat Mission, Schools, Telecom, Health, Drinking Water & Sanitation, Rural Development & Panchayati Raj, Roads and Agriculture. It is an essential component of Digital India program to ensure easy, effective and economical governance. It also provides GIS based decision support system to Central and State Government Departments for delivering citizen centric services.

For more details please visit:



On-demand web cast services for important National, International and regional events


With the advent of high-end streaming media technology, the concept of doing live /on-demand webcast has gained popularity like never. Webcast allows to extend the reach of the event to all corners of the world, with no limitations of physical or geographical boundaries.

At National Informatics Centre, the events get an optimum webcast with flawless production quality. NIC’s webcast service offers various solution for an event, bringing onsite production, hosting, and streaming to millions of online viewers.

* Live Webcast: the transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video to personal computers that are connected to the Internet. Participants can use a chat window to type in questions to the presenter during the session. Web casts simulate the look and feel of a live event and can even be recorded for later viewing for those who missed the original web cast. This method is also less expensive than satellite broadcasting.

* On-Demand Webcast: Pre-recorded clips are delivered, or streamed, to users upon request. A user who clicks a link to an on-demand clip watches the clip from the beginning. The user can fast-forward, rewind, or pause the clip. On demand streams can be created from archived live events or recorded clips.

Technology used at NIC:

Encoder : Flash Media Live Encoder (FMLE)
Server : NIC Media Streaming Server
Player : HLS Player
Protocols : HTTP / RTMP

NIC Webcast service includes:

Onsite encoding engines that transmit media stream at the desired rate
High Speed RF/Leased Line/Satellite connections to the distribution server
User access packages—unlimited or blocks
Archiving services for various events
Aesthetically Designed Web pages announcing the upcoming events and providing links to the webcast

NIC has been providing live/on-demand webcast services to Central and State Government for important National, International and regional, educational events, conferences and other live events. Live webcast services are provided for Government TV channels such as Lok Sabha TV, Rajya Sabha TV, Doordarshan News, DD-Kisan, UGC – CEC higher educational channel, DD Punjabi among others on 24×7 basis.

Important events such as Union Budget speech, President’s address to the nation, Prime Minister’s Mann Ki Baat & other speeches, Independence and Republic Day celebrations at New Delhi, Air Force Day, Dance and cultural Festivals, PIB press conferences, NIC Knowledge sharing, NKN events, proceedings of state assemblies, other national and international events/conferences like Make in India, Skill India, Start-up India, Digital India, International Yoga Day are covered using NIC Webcast services.

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Domain Registration

Digital Identity for the Government.

Domain Registration(Gov.In service)

Revolution in the field of Internet has marked the beginning of new age called the “e-age”. With the significant growth in digital world, the online presence has taken great importance for Government to ensure majority of government services to be delivered electronically to the citizen. Making services online is one of the prime agenda of Digital India Program of GoI .

Domain name under is the digital identity and plays an important role in digital governances in the process of delivering service online and building trust. NIC is the exclusive Registrar for GOV.IN domain names and provides the domain name registration service through a portal

The allocation of Domain Name under is made in compliance to the registration guidelines ( released by MeitY

Domain name registration could be done online by login into registry portal (

A domain name may be registered in English as well as in Hindi language.

Using the registry portal users can easily find out domain availability information and status of the registered domain. The different online services provided through the portal make the process easy and quick like domain management (Which include detail updation, Name server updation etc) transfer (In case of non availability of the login person), Domain delegation ( permission for creating 4th level domain), Sub domain management(registration, updation deletion etc), Domain name renewal, cancellation. Digital signature feature is also included for domain registration to cut the overhead time and make the registration completely online.

For more details please visit :



Multi-Gigabyte-Pan-India-Network connecting Knowledge Institutions



National Knowledge Network (NKN) is a state-of-art countrywide network which is a revolutionary step towards creating a knowledge society without boundaries.

The objective of NKN is to interconnect all institutions of higher learning and research with a high-speed data communication network to facilitate knowledge sharing and collaborative research.

National Knowledge Network (NKN) bridges the existing knowledge gap in the country and helps to evolve as a Knowledge Society and spur economic activities in the Knowledge domain. It facilitates the development of India’s information infrastructure, stimulate research, and create next generation applications and services.

Some of the salient features of the NKN are:

  • Establishing Connectivity for Knowledge and information sharing.
  • Enabling Collaborative Research in emerging areas such as Climate Modelling.
  • Facilitating distance education in specialized fields such as medicine, emerging high tech areas covering info-bio-nano technology.
  • Facilitating an ultra-high-speed e-governance backbone for information sharing.

NKN also acts as a test bed for research in the area of network, security and delivery models for various services. As NKN is a new initiative, it will leverage existing initiatives, to ensure faster roll out with modest investment.

NKN Design and Architecture


The main design consideration for NKN was to create an infrastructure that can scale and adapt to future requirements.

NKN design philosophy is to Encourage, Enable, Enrich and Empower the user community to test and implement innovative ideas without any restriction from the network technology and its administration. Based on that philosophy, as a next generation network, NKN will cater to the following requirements:

  • Network design –

    NKN design follows all the current standards to permit seamless inter-operability amongst technologies and seamless integration amongst different original equipment manufacturers.

  • Security requirements –

    With the growing number of incidences reported by CERT and the increasing challenges posed by innovations in convergence, keeping the network alive can be possible only with very stringent security measures designed, implemented and deployed.

  • Service requirements –

    These requirements are essential for transparent delivery of services based on either heritage (as in telephony) or the general requirements for a particular service.

  • Network requirements –

    These requirements are network-specific and can be tied to specific services, specific delivery mechanism (client could be variety of devices like PC/ PDA/ any other device) and access mechanisms like (intranet / Internet). The design will cater to the overall performance goal of the NKN infrastructure.

  • Operational requirements –

    The NKN is designed to cater to the requirements of tracking, troubleshooting, health monitoring, and proactive performance monitoring. With the converged network it becomes more important to proactively monitor the network for impending issues.

NKN Services:


NKN is steadily evolving as the National Education Research Network (NREN) of India. The project has already made significant progress by connecting over 1100+ institutes in the network. NKN is now being looked as the harbinger of change in our knowledge society but this also brings together the responsibility to continuously look forward to providing the much-required impetus to R&D initiatives related to networking technology.

NKN understands the requirement of R&D initiatives without a profit motive and therefore took a step forward in facilitation of this cause. The team comprising of zealous engineers and networking experts have worked over past few months to develop set of NKN products and services.

NKN Services are categorized into three major categories:


  • Cloud based Services
  • Network Oriented Services
  • Application Services

Community Services:


The focus area is the common problems faced by a pool of users and provide them an easy access to tools and technologies through a centralized mechanism. The delivery mechanism for these services is primarily cloud-based technology which allows us to disseminate it to a larger audience within short span of time.

  • Countrywide Virtual Classroom :

    NKN is a platform for delivering effective distance education where teachers and students can interact in real time. This is especially significant in a country like India where access to education is limited by factors such as geography, lack of infrastructure facilities etc.

  • Collaborative Research :

    NKN enables collaboration among researchers from different educational networks like GLORIAD, TEIN3, GARUDA, CERN etc. NKN also enables sharing of scientific databases and remote access to advanced research facilities.

  • Grid Computing :

    NKN has the capability to handle high bandwidth with low latency with a provision overlay grid computing. Some of the grid-based applications are climate change/global warming, science projects like Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and ITER.

  • Virtual Library :

    The Virtual Library will enable sharing of journals, books and research papers across different institutions.

  • Sharing of Computing Resources :

    High-performance computing is critical for national security, industrial productivity, and advances in science and engineering. The network enables many institutions to access high-performance computing to conduct advanced research in areas such as weather monitoring, earthquake engineering and other computationally intensive fields.

  • Network Technology Testbed :

    NKN provides a testbed for testing and validation of services before they are made available to the production network. NKN also provides an opportunity to test new hardware & software, vendor interoperability etc.

  • e-Governance :

    The NKN will provide high speed backbone connectivity for e-governance infrastructure such as data Centres at the national and state levels, and networks (SWANs). The NKN will also provide massive data transfer capabilities required for e-governance applications.

For more details please visit


Command and Control Centre

A nation-wide view of ICT infrastructure of all critical Govt services

Command and Control Centre

Command and Control Centre (CCC) aims to have a nation-wide view of the ICT infrastructure to effectively monitor the performances of all critical Government Services.

NIC has been offering services to the Government through its 4 National Data Centres and 30+ Mini Data Centres across the country. The Command and Control Centre (CCC) was set up keeping in view the requirement of a centralized facility to seamlessly monitor the availability of all these Centres and Cloud Services. Over 10,000 e-Governance applications are being hosted by these Centres.

CCC is providing users with a customized dashboard of Network Management System (NMS) that enables it to monitor their respective applications. It also provides Application Performance Management (APM) through CCC to improve the availability, performance and functioning of critical applications.

Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad, Hon’ble Union Minister, Electronics & Information, Technology and Law & Justice, inaugurated the Command & Control Centre (CCC) at NIC Headquarters, New Delhi on 10th January 2019, in the presence of Shri Ajay Sawhney, IAS, Secretary, Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY), Smt. Kiran Soni Gupta, Additional Secretary and Financial Advisor, MeitY & Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Dr. Neeta Verma, Director General, NIC, Shri Pankaj Kumar, Additional Secretary, MeitY, Shri Gopalakrishnan S., AS & FA and JS (Emerging Technologies), MeitY and other senior officers from the Ministry.

NIC has set up the Command and Control Centre, making it first of its kind in the Government which increases the agility of NIC’s nationwide ICT infrastructure.


Government Local Area Networks (LANs)

Connecting government

Government Local Area Networks (LANs)

NIC provides computer support to all the Central Government Departments, State Government Departments and District Administration. NIC has set up a satellite-based computer communication network for providing Email, Internet, File Transfer, access to National & International databases, EDI, etc.

NIC has set up a Local Area Networks (LAN) in Central Government Departments and State Government Secretariats. Government LAN Service helps to connect various Government Departments located across States and Union Territories.

Over the years NIC has extended the satellite based Wide Area Network in all the Central Government offices and State Government Secretariats.

NIC has been training the Government Employees on a regular basis to enable them use computerized MIS and Databases; up to the district level.



Securing Critical Govt Cyber Infrastructure



NIC-CERT Division is the nodal arm of National Informatics Centre (NIC) for managing the cyber security incidents. NIC-CERT acts as a single point of contact and co-ordinate with concerned stakeholders for cyber security incidents targeted at NIC Infrastructure. It undertakes measures to issue periodic threat intelligence, Security Alerts/ Tips and advisories to safeguard NIC’s assets against cyber threats.

NIC-CERT strives to facilitate a safer and secure cyber space environment for users of NIC services, by providing timely cyber threat intelligence, advisory and best practices; to proactively ward off malicious attacks / threats targeted at the National Informatics Centre. NIC-CERT was established with the mission of collectively leading and coordinating the cyber security incident response and to strengthen the cyber security posture of NIC.

The core mission activities of NIC-CERT include:


  • To co-ordinate and respond to Cyber Security incidents happening in NIC
  • To provide Intelligence or advisory on the prevailing Cyber Threats and vulnerabilities, for proactively securing NIC’s network and assets
  • To co-ordinate with CERT-IN, NCIIPC and other stakeholders for Cyber Security Incident and other security related activities
  • To Establish and Maintain a centralized Log Management system for NIC
  • To Maintain a Knowledge base of Cyber Security Incidents handled by NIC-CERT
  • To undertake capacity building activities to augment in-house cyber capability, skills and expertise

Network Security


The Network Security Division is in relentless pursuit of achieving CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability) of ICT assets in NICNET through deployment of expert manpower, appropriate tools, and state-of-the-art technologies.

The Network Security Division (NSD) of NIC is engaged in assessment, planning, deployment and management of security devices and solutions across the NICNET in general and the Data Centres in particular. The NSD conducts Security Audit of Data Centres and Bhawan Networks on regular basis and on demand. The security span of NSD comprises of all National and State Data Centres, over 1000 LANs of Govt. offices and MPLS networks, more than 2 Lakh endpoints and a series of networking devices deployed across the country. The Network Security Division manages the 24×7 Security Monitoring Centre to ensure real time monitoring, detection, prevention, analysis and reporting of Cyber threats and attacks.

Application Security


NIC is formulating and updating the Security Policies for NICNET as and when required. Security Audit of Web Applications / Websites, Penetration Testing and Vulnerability Analysis, SSL compliance testing, Version Detection for application hosting environment with infrastructure compliance checks are also done as per user requirement. Critical Web applications are secured through Web Application Firewall (WAF) to counter Application layer threat, Management and administration of deployed WAF solutions configuration of critical sites including CMF (Drupal) based portals, WAF service support at NIU Hyderabad for non-compliant web applications and 24×7 monitoring service. The center provides Incident Handling and Malware Analysis, Sanitization of security controls based on analysis results and Issuing advisories to NICNET users.

For more details please visit


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